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National Polio Immunization Drive Begins Across the Country

  • Be N By IAS, Delhi
  • 31, Jan 2021
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For : GS-1, GS-2: Health


President of India Shri Ram Nath Kovind launched the National Polio Immunisation Day for 2021 by administering polio drops to children less than five years old at Rashtrapati Bhawan on 30th January 2021.


  • Polio Immunization so far: Polio National Immunization Day, also known as ‘’Polio Ravivar”. As per provisional report on day one, close to 89 lakh children (as per provisional data) under five years across the country were given polio drops today.
  • Vaccinations were conducted at close to 7 lakh booths which were staffed with around 12 lakh vaccinators and 1.8 lakh supervisors.
  • House-to-house surveillance: The booth activity will be followed by house-to-house surveillance (mop-up rounds) over the next two to five days to identify and vaccinate children who missed getting vaccinated at the booths.
  • Vaccination teams at every place: have also been deployed at bus terminals, railway stations, airports and ferry crossing to vaccinate children in transit to ensure no child misses the life-saving dose.
  • Safety during Pandemic: All measures have been taken to ensure safety during the times of the pandemic by maintaining COVID-19 appropriate practices.
  • Polio-free status: Dr Harsh Vardhan said,“Maintaining a polio-free status for 10 years is a huge accomplishment in the history of public health in India.”
  • He also highlighted government efforts and actions to strengthen routine immunization to ensure that no child suffers from a vaccine-preventable disease.
  • Polio Free from 2011: India has been free of polio for a decade, with the last case of wild poliovirus reported on 13th January 2011.
  • Prevent re-entry from neighbours: The country, however, continues to remain vigilant to prevent re-entry of the poliovirus into the country from neighbouring countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, where wild poliovirus continues to cause disease.
  • Nationwide Immunization: every year to maintain population immunity against wild poliovirus and to sustain its polio free status, India conducts for polio:
    1. One nationwide NID and
    2. Two Sub-National Immunization Day (SNIDs)


  • On 30th Jan 2021, India observed National Vaccination day, also known as Immunization day.
  • In 1995 first dose of Oral Polio vaccine was given in India.
  • Pulse Polio Campaign: To eradicate polio from the country launched by the government.
  • Under this extensive drive, 2 drops of Oral Polio Vaccine was given to all children younger than 5 years of age.
  • The last reported case of polio in India was in West Bengal in January.
  • In 2014, India was declared polio-free.


  • Definition: The World Health Organization (WHO) defines it as “a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children.”
  • Transmission: By person-to-person, spread mainly through the faecal-oral route or, less frequently, by a common vehicle (e.g. contaminated water or food) and multiplies in the intestine
  • Impact: Invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis.
  • Symptoms: Fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck, and pain in the limbs.
  • Cure: No cure for polio, it can only be prevented by immunization.

Source: PIB


Q. Which of the followings statements is/are correct regarding Polio?

  1. Polio is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children.
  2. India was declared polio-free in 2010.
  3. Polio invade the nervous system and can cause paralysis.

Select the correct answer using the code below.

  • a) 1 and 2 Only
  • b) 2 and 3 Only
  • c) 1 and 3 Only
  • d) 1, 2 and 3