Get the most updated and recent current affair content on

Minsk Agreements

  • Vaid's ICS, Lucknow
  • 26, Feb 2022
Image Not Found

Why in  News?


  • Ukraine and the Russian-backed separatists agreed on a 12-point ceasefire deal in the capital of Belarus in September 2014.

Its provisions included :

  • prisoner exchanges,
  • deliveries of humanitarian aid and
  • the withdrawal of heavy weapons
  • The agreement quickly broke down, with violations by both sides.


  • Representatives of Russia, Ukraine, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the leaders of two pro-Russian separatist regions signed a 13-point agreement in February 2015 in Minsk.
  • The leaders of France, Germany, Russia and Ukraine gathered there at the same time and issued a declaration of support for the deal.

The 13 points were, in brief :

  • An immediate and comprehensive ceasefire
  • Withdrawal of all heavy weapons by both sides
  • Monitoring and verification by the OSCE
  • To start a dialogue on interim self-government for the Donetsk and Luhansk regions, in accordance with Ukrainian law, and acknowledge their special status by a resolution of parliament.
  • A pardon and amnesty for people involved in the fighting
  • An exchange of hostages and prisoners.
  • Provision of humanitarian assistance.
  • Resumption of socio-economic ties, including pensions.
  • Restore full control of the state border by the government of Ukraine.
  • Withdrawal of all foreign armed formations, military equipment and mercenaries.
  • Constitutional reform in Ukraine including decentralisation, with specific mention of Donetsk and Luhansk.
  • Elections in Donetsk and Luhansk on terms to be agreed with their representatives.
  • Intensify the work of a Trilateral Contact Group including representatives of Russia, Ukraine and the OSCE.

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)

  • It is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 countries across the world.
  • Established in: 1949
  • Headquarters: Brussels, Belgium
  • India is not a member country of NATO.

Facts for Prelims:

Sea Cucumber

In Context

  • Indian Coast Guard seized live Sea Cucumbers about 120 nautical miles off Kavaratti Island in Lakshadweep.

What is a Sea Cucumber?

  • They are an important constituent of the marine ecosystem as they play an important role in maintaining the health of the ecosystem.
  • It has no limbs or eyes, or blood.
  • There are some 1,250 known species, and many of these animals are shaped like soft-bodied cucumbers.
  • Demand: Sea cucumbers are in high demand in China and Southeast Asia, where they are consumed as food and used in medicine.
  • This endangered species is primarily smuggled from Tamil Nadu to Sri Lanka.