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Core sector output at 6-month low; crude, natural gas hit most

  • IAS NEXT, Lucknow
  • 23, Nov 2022
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Core sector output at 6-month low; crude, natural gas hit most



Core Industry
Core industry can be defined as the main industry which has a multiplier effect on the economy.
In most countries, there is particular industry that seems to be backbone of all other industries and it qualifies to be the core industry.
The Eight Core Industries comprise 40.27% of the weight of items included in the Index of Industrial Production (IIP).
The eight Core Industries in decreasing order of their weightage: Refinery Products> Electricity> Steel> Coal> Crude Oil> Natural Gas> Cement>Fertilizers.


Index of Industrial Production

The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) is an index that shows the growth rates in different industry groups of the economy in a fixed period of time.

It is compiled and published monthly by the Central Statistical Organization (CSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.




IIP is a composite indicator that measures the growth rate of industry groups classified under:

Broad sectors: Mining, Manufacturing, and Electricity.
Use-based sectors: Basic Goods, Capital Goods, and Intermediate Goods.
Base Year for IIP is 2011-2012.

The eight core industries of India represent about 40% of the weight of items that are included in the IIP.

Significance of IIP:
IIP is the only measure on the physical volume of production.


It is used by government agencies including the Ministry of Finance, the Reserve Bank of India, etc., for policy-making purposes.

IIP remains extremely relevant for the calculation of the quarterly and advance GDP estimates.

3. High inflation and risk of recession widen ECB dilemma

International relations/ International body

Eurozone (EZ) inflation jumped to another record high and will soon hit double-digit territory, herald in gast ring of big interest rate hikes even as a painful recession appears increasingly certain

Eurozone (EZ)
The eurozone (EZ) is a monetary union of 19 member states of the European Union (EU). |


They have adopted the euro (€) as their primary currency and sole legal tender.

European Central Bank (ECB)
The European Central Bank (ECB) manages the euro and frames and implements EU economic & monetary policy. Its main aim is to keep prices stable, thereby supporting economic growth and job creation.

Role: To manage the euro, keep prices stable and conduct EU economic & monetary policy

President: Christine Lagarde

Members: ECB President and Vice-President and governors of national central banks from all EU countries

Established in: 1998

Location: Frankfurt (Germany)

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: symptoms, treatment and prevention


Science and Technology/Health

There has been a spike in cases of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in Mumbai. But, as HFMD is not a notifiable disease, the state doesn’t have cumulative data from private hospitals which share most of the caseload.|

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFM) is a viral infection common in young children that causes painful red blisters in the mouth and throat, and on the hands, feet, and diaper area. HFMD is characterized by blisters or sores in the mouth and a rash on the hands and feet.

The infection can affect people of all ages, but it usually occurs in children under age 5.

It’s caused by viruses from the non-polio Enterovirus genus.

These viruses can spread from person to person through direct contact with unwashed hands or surfaces contaminated with faeces. It can also be transmitted through contact with a person’s saliva, stool, or respiratory secretions.




Sore throat.


Feeling sick.
Painful, blister-like lesions on the tongue, gums and inside of the cheeks.

A rash on the palms, soles and sometimes the buttocks. The rash is not itchy, but sometimes it has blisters. Depending on skin tone, the rash may appear red, white, gray, or only show as tiny bumps.

Fussiness in infants and toddlers.

Loss of appetite.

How is hand, foot, and mouth disease treated?
In most cases, the infection will go away without treatment in 7 to 10 days. However, doctor may recommend certain treatments to help ease symptoms until the disease has run its course..
These can include:

Prescription or over-the-counter topical ointments to soothe blisters and rashes

Pain medication, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, to relieve headaches
Medicated syrups or lozenges to ease painful sore throats
One shouldn’t give aspirin to children for viral infections. Aspirin can lead to Reye’s syndrome in children

Similar disease Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of livestock that has a significant economic impact.

The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats and other cloven-hoofed ruminants.
FMD virus belongs to (risk group 4 as per World Organization for Animal Health.

FMD can spread when infected animals bring the virus into physical contact with susceptible animals.
Virus contaminated facilities, contaminated vehicles, raw or improperly cooked garbage containing infected meat or animal products can also spread the virus of FMD.


Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by various Brucella species, which mainly infect cattle, swine, goats, sheep and dogs.

Humans generally acquire the disease through direct contact with infected animals, by eating or drinking contaminated animal products, or by inhaling airborne agents.


The majority of cases are caused by ingesting unpasteurized milk or cheese from infected goats or sheep.

Person to person transmission is rare.

The disease causes flu-like symptoms, including fever, weakness, malaise and weight loss.


Possible nuclear threat


Potassium iodide (KI) tablets, or anti-radiation pills, are known to provide some protection in cases of radiation exposure. They contain non-radioactive iodine and can help block absorption, and subsequent concentration, of radioactive iodine in the thyroid gland.




Nikshay Poshan Yojana


The NPY was launched in 2018 by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. NPY is India’s flagship nutrition support scheme for TB patients. It aims to support every Tuberculosis (TB) Patient by providing a Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) of Rs 500 per month for nutritional needs






Herbicide Tolerant Bt (HTBt) Cotton​


The HTBt cotton variant adds another layer of modification, making the plant resistant to the herbicide glyphosate, but has not been approved by regulators. HtBt Cotton involves the addition of another gene, ‘Cp4-Epsps’ from another soil bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens to make it herbicide resistant. Fears include glyphosate having a carcinogenic effect, as well as the unchecked spread of herbicide resistance to nearby plants through pollination, creating a variety of superweeds. As it is not approved by the Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC), illegal sale takes place in Indian markets.




The British Commonwealth:  

Its past, present, and post-Queen Elizabeth future The death of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, marks not only the end of an era for the British monarchy but also a turning point for the 14 Commonwealth realms of which she was the Head of State



What is the Background?


There has been a significant transformation of the socio-economic environment in the 14 realms countries since the death of Queen Elizabeth II. Several countries out of these 14 called to establish a republic and break free of historical ties to the British monarchy. A republic is a form of government in which "supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives". Thus, it is likely that during the reign of the incumbent King Charles III, the Queen’s successor, more nations will follow in the footsteps of Barbados. In 2021, Barbados became the 18th country to remove the British monarch from the role of head of state and substitute them with a national government functionary.









What is the Commonwealth?


The Commonwealth of Nations is a group of 56 countries composed mostly of former British colonies.

It was established by the London Declaration in 1949.

While members of the Commonwealth are predominantly located in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and the Pacific, with many of them emerging economies, the three European members of the group are Cyprus, Malta, and the U.K.

The developed nations of the Commonwealth are Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.