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COP 26

  • Vaid's ICS, Lucknow
  • 11, Jan 2022
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Why in News?

The UK is going to host the COP 26 UN Climate Change Conference from October 31 to November 12.

    • The year 2021 marks the 26th Conference of Parties and will be held in the Scottish Event Campus in Glasgow.

Formation of COP

  • About:
    • The Conference of Parties comes under the United Nations Climate Change Framework Convention (UNFCCC) which was formed in 1994.
    • The UNFCCC was established to work towards “stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.”
    • The UNFCCC has 198 parties including India, China and the USA. COP members have been meeting every year since 1995.
  • List of responsibilities for the member states:
  • Formulating measures to mitigate climate change
  • Cooperating in preparing for adaptation to the impact of climate change
  • Promoting education, training and public awareness related to climate change

COP1 to COP25: An overview

  • COP1
    • The first conference was held in 1995 in Berlin.
  • COP3
    • Held in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997, wherein the famous Kyoto Protocol (w.e.f. 2005) was adopted
      • Under this, member states pursue limitation or reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
  • COP8
    • India hosted the eighth COP in 2002 in New Delhi.
      • It laid out measures including, strengthening of technology transfer in all relevant sectors, including energy, transport and R&D,  and the strengthening of institutions for sustainable development
  • COP21
    • It happened in 2015, in Paris, France.
      • Member countries agreed to work together to ‘limit global warming to well below 2, preferably at 1.5 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels.’


  • It is a pivotal movement for the world to come together and accelerate the climate action plan after the COVID pandemic.

Four goals of COP26

  • Secure global net-zero by mid-century and keep 1.5 degrees within reach.
  • Adapt to protect communities and natural habitats.
  • Mobilise finance:
    • To deliver on our first two goals, developed countries must make good on their promise to mobilise at least $100bn in climate finance per year
  • ‘Finalise the Paris Rulebook’:
    • Leaders will work together to frame a list of detailed rules that will help fulfil the Paris Agreement.

Steps India should take to reach its targets

  • Sector Wise effective planning:
    • We need to decarbonise the electricity, transport sector and start looking at carbon per passenger mile.
  • Update NDCs:
    • It is time for India to update its Nationally Determined Contributions or NDCs. (NDCs detail the various efforts taken by each country to reduce the national emissions)
  • Focus on sustainable energy sources:
    • Transitioning our coal sector to renewable and sustainable energy sources.
  • Robust legal framework:
    • India also needs to amp up the legal and institutional framework of climate change.

Facts for Prelims


Why in News?

Nerve-end connections known as synapses form is highlighted in a recent study of Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum of knockout zebrafish.

More in News 

  • Zebrafish are transparent and neuron development in larval zebrafish can be observed from day to day by injecting a dye or by engineering the fish to express fluorescent proteins.
  • It has been observed that knocking out a particular protein known as the gap junction delta 2b (gjd2b) in the cerebellum of zebrafish affected levels of the enzyme CaMKII. 
  • Levels of CaMKII were seen to increase in the Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum.

About Zebrafish

  • Scientific Name: Danio rerio
  • It is a tropical freshwater fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae) of the order Cypriniformes.
  • Habitat/Range: Native to rivers and streams of South Asia.


  • It is a popular aquarium fish.
  • It is about 4 cm long and has dark-blue and silvery longitudinal stripes.
  • IUCN Red List Status: Least concerned.