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Artificial intelligence (AI) is the area of computer science focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviors that humans consider intelligent. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines." It is a combination of computer science, physiology, and philosophy.

Artificial Intelligence Includes :

Games playing : programming computers to play games such as chess and checkers

Expert systems : programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms)

Natural language : programming computers to understand natural human languages

Neural networks: Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains.

Robotics: programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuli.

Currently, no computer exhibits full artificial intelligence (that is, are able to simulate human behavior).

AI Research : There are two main lines of research :

Biological, based on the idea that since humans are intelligent. AI should study humans and imitate their psychology or physiology.
Phenomenal, based on studying and formalizing common sense facts about the world and the problems that the world presents to the achievement of goals.
The two approaches interact to some extent.

Advantages of Artificial Intelligence :

Machines can be used to take on complex and stressful work that would be otherwise performed by humans.
Machines can complete the task faster than a human assigned to do the same task. Use of robotics to discover unexplored landscape, outer space and also be useful in our home activities.
Less danger, injury and stress to humans as the work is done by a artificially intelligent machine.Aiding of mental, visually and hearing impaired individuals
Used for games to create an atmosphere where you don't feel like you are playing against just a machine.

Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence:

It lacks the human touch. Its human qualities are sometimes ignored. It has ability to replace a human job. It gives rise to humans feeling insecure and may have the fear of losing their job. Human capabilities can be replaced using a machine and therefore can foster feelings of inferiority among workers and staff. Artificial Intelligence can malfunction and do the opposite of what they are programmed to do. It has may corrupt the younger generation. There is no filtering of information. The type of technology can be misused to cause mass scale destruction.

Artificial Intelligence and World: The development in the field of Artificial Intelligence have been started from 2010 at the rate of 60% in which top five countries are as following;

America: Companies like IBM, Microsoft, Google, Facebook and Amazon have invested more than 10 billion dollars on Artificial Intelligence which has grown this market in America and made it top most country in this field.

Britain: Deepmind technology has been established to promote the Artificial Intelligence in the country.

Japan: The country has published more than 11 thousands Research Paper on Artificial Intelligence.

Germany: The country is making efforts to become the Hub of Artificial Intelligence.

China: Planning to become a Centre of highest level innovation in Artificial Intelligence by the year of 2030.

Note: India is making hardcore effort to become top country in the Field of Artificical Intelligence in upcoming 20 years.

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